Survival of Colonizing Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, 1982–2004


Douglas W. Smith, Edward E. Bangs, John K. Oakleaf, Curtis Mack, Joseph Fontaine, Diane Boyd, Michael Jimenez, Daniel H. Pletscher, Carter C. Niemeyer, Thomas J. Meier, Daniel R. Stahler, James Holyan, Valpha J. Asher, Dennis L. Murray

From The Journal of WIldlife Management:

"The wolf recovery goal is to restore an equitably distributed metapopulation of ≥30 breeding pairs and 300 wolves in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, while minimizing damage to livestock; ultimately, the objective is to establish state‐managed conservation programs for wolf populations in NRM."

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